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Three-dimensional direction-dependent force measurement at the subatomic scale

Scientists have developed a new atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique that can measure the three-dimensional force fields of atoms. In their technique, the precisely controlled tip of a mechanical arm is moved over a material surface at two different frequencies to provide information about the material surface in both vertical and parallel directions. This AFM technique will expand understanding of the structure and physical properties of material surfaces at the subatomic scale.

(via WSJ)